If you search the Internet for the words “firmware” and “embedded software”, you will find definitions all over the map. And the definitions have changed over time. Today, specialists in this field with more than 10 years of experience – the company ADUK GmbH – will tell a little more about the features of firmware development and why it is so important.

Historically, “firmware” was software that was stored in a special type of memory chip called EPROM (erasable programmable permanent memory) or EEPROM, a version of “electrically erasable”. These chips were different from the usual ROM chips. They could be erased and reprogrammed; EPROM can be erased by exposure to ultraviolet light, and EEPROM can be erased and reprogrammed using external circuits. For all practical purposes, the software stored in this way was permanent and immobile: “firmware”.

Firmware is usually used as a lower-level software that manages a specific single-purpose device. Many components of a personal computer – video adapters, disk drives and network adapters-have built-in software, as well as many peripheral devices that are connected to computers (printers, external storage devices, peripherals…).

Computer components and peripherals usually have device drivers. This software works as an interface with other devices.

In the past, the device firmware was rarely updated, mainly due to the impracticality of erasing and reprogramming (E) EPROM in the field. With only a few kilobytes of memory, the firmware was usually simple and, as a rule, did not need to be updated. Now the firmware has significantly evolved and is an upgraded (albeit difficult) architecture for subsequent work with hardware and creating embedded software.

Like firmware, embedded software is software designed for a specific device. It usually runs on a microcontroller or a microprocessor on the device.

Unlike firmware, embedded software works more like application software running on a PC.

Program files for embedded software are stored in the device’s file system until they are called for execution, after which the executable code is loaded into the device’s RAM and executed by the microprocessor. Embedded software usually implements the functions and capabilities of a higher-level device. The firmware takes on low-level tasks, such as converting analog sensor signals into digital data and managing communication protocols.

Embedded software can be very complex and is often written in high-level languages such as C++, Java, JavaScript or Python. Many modern devices use an operating system, such as Android or Linux. However, this is not always necessary; for simpler devices, the firmware can perform tasks that the OS would cope with.

Nowadays, there is no clear distinction between the two types of software. Depending on the design of the device, some tasks that are traditionally related to one can be performed by another.

For the operation of specialized industrial devices, usually, only firmware is required. The firmware controls the movements and processes of the device. It also interprets sensor data and reacts to them. However, the same hardware with different purposes uses different embedded software for each purpose. But this field is lying with the embedded hardware design service provider..

The firmware is usually located between the microprocessor and the hardware components, converting the incoming component data into something that the microprocessor can understand and affect. The firmware also converts the commands of the microprocessor into signals that are understandable to the hardware components. This is the main work of a hardware developer.

Basically, embedded software provides more higher-level features, such as the user interface (if any). Admittedly, the differences are fuzzy at times and can vary from device to device, but the bottom line is that together they make digital devices do what they should do.

To create custom firmware for the specified hardware components, you should carefully and meticulously look for a technomaniac who specializes in firmware and microarchitecture. In the case of the current situation in the world, where most companies and employees have moved online, you can turn to outsourced software hardware development services. This will be the best option for a quick start without an unnecessary challenge to find the right people in the office.